Trading Is Permitted But Usury Forbidden
LESSON # 317 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
Trading Is Permitted But Usury Forbidden
BAQARAH – 2 (The Cow)
Verse –275 of 286, Section –38 (Part - 3)
Those who swallow usury cannot rise up save as he ariseth whom the devil hath prostrated by (his) touch. That is because they say; Trade is just like usury. Whereas Allah permitteth trading and forbiddeth usury. He unto whom an admonition from his Lord cometh, and (he) refraineth (in obedience thereto), he shall keep the profits of) that which is past, and his affair (henceforth) is with Allah. And as for him who returneth (to usury), such are rightful owners of the Fire. They will abide therein for ever.
‘Allaziina ya’-kuluunar-Ribaa laa yaquumuuna ‘illaa kamaa yaquu-mullazii yata-khabbatuhush-Shay-taanu mi-nal-mass. Zaalika bi-‘annahum qaaluuu ‘innamal-Bay-‘u mis-lur-Ribaa. Wa ‘ahallal-laahul-Bay-‘a wa harramar-Ribaa. Faman-jaaa-‘ahuu maw-‘iza tum-mir-Rabbihii fanta-haa fa-lahuu maa salaf. Wa ‘amruhuuu ‘ilallaah. Wa man ‘aada fa-‘ulaaa-‘ika ‘As-haabun-Naar. Hum fiihaa khaaliduun.
‘ar-Ribaa – (Usury, exorbitant interest), literal meanings of this word are access and more than enough, particularly abundance in the capital (funds). In the expression of the Religious Law of God Almighty, it means ‘interest on the real loan’ or to gain without retaliation and to want more on actual wealth. Near to Arabs, it meant that superfluous sum, which any creditor used to receive in retaliation and which is called interest now a day. Some people have begun to say it profit instead of interest. In this manner, by changing the word, the truth does not change.
mi-nal-mass – (by (his) touch), as the senses of a humankind use to set out due to clinging of a demon.
maw-‘iza tum-mir-Rabbihii – (an admonition from his Lord), that is to say; command that the Usury is forbidden.
maa salafa – (that which is past), it aims that which Usury has already been taken or paid before proclamation that the Usury is forbidden, that will not be called to a severe account. Minute inquiry will begin after announcement of clear orders and it has been strictly forbidden to swallow the Usury.
Badness Of The Usury
Before the verse of Usury as becoming unlawful and forbidden, Allah Almighty had explained about the excellences of alms and charity. Because gentleness arises in the matters of the poor due to alms and charity, and disgust is born against impoliteness. Many evils are removed, feelings of morality, politeness, faithfulness, causing to gain others and passion to serve the humankind spring up. Therefore, their importance declared unfolding them.
Now description about unlawfulness of Usury begins. It is totally opposite to the charity and alms. If the politeness increases due to charity, then cruelty increases due to Usury. Hence, the recitation of unlawfulness and forbidden state of Usury has come immediately after making mention about excellences of alms and charity, which is utmost suitable and opportune at its place.
It has been told in this verse that on the Day of Resurrection Usurers will not be able to stand upright at the time of getting up from their graves. Rather they will suffer staggering with difficulty like insane and mad. We can see entirely same scene in this world. Moneylenders and bankers become lunatic behind the money. It seems that any demon or ghost has closed them by winding round. Each time they use to think about Usury.
Allah Almighty has told the reason also about the people fallen into this condition on the Doomsday. They say, “Trade is just like Usury”, as financial profit is intent in trading, just as this financial gain also remains in view in the Usury/interest. While Trading is permitted then why the Usury is forbidden, whereas they do not know that morally and economically the difference between Trade and Usury is too much as the difference between sky and earth. The moneylender gets fixed amount of Usury in each condition without fear of loss and doubt. Opposite to this apprehension of both remains ‘profit or loss’ in the Trade, and the Merchant have to spend time, hardworking and brain etc. to save himself from the loss. Afterwards the Trade uses to end or become less, but Usury increases along with delay and duration. Up to this place, that usually the Borrower reaches the situation of ruin and destruction.
If we consider a little thoughtfully about the reality of Usury, then a question will arise, “Hindmost this retaliation is of which thing? What is this ultimate except most ill looking of hanging-on? In view of this entire badness, Allah Almighty has forbidden the Usury/Interest for expedience and betterment of the humanity. In brief, its evils are as under:
Hardheartedness arises in the Usurer. His avarice increases. Due to wealth’s coming in hand without hardworking, indolence and laziness grows. Unevenness also comes due to spending the gratis wealth, and this wealth is wasted in luxuries. Habit of selfishness is born. Stinginess and reciprocal enmity runs over. Destruction and disgrace of indebted person exist beside also.
Allah Almighty commanded excusing the people that the person who abstains after listening the advice and order of determining the Usury as unlawful, his previous Usury will be forgiven. But who will not refrain, he will burn in the Fire for ever.
The people of the world changed the names of Usury. But, how its badness and results can be changed? We, the Muslims need special attention to see in to this matter. Otherwise, Law of Islam will suffer a stain due to our behaviour and we shall not be able to escape ourselves from these badness.
Transliteration in Roman Script & English Translation of Holy Qur’an written by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore and Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated by Muhammad Sharif)