Sunday, 31 August 2014

Paradise Is For Obedient, Hell Is For Disobedient

LESSON # 482 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
Paradise Is For Obedient, Hell Is For Disobedient
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verses –113 & 114 of 176, Section –2/24 (Part – 4)

13.  These are the bounds of Allah. And whoso obeyeth Allah and His Messenger, He will make him enter Gardens underneath which rivers flow, where such will dwell for ever. And that will be the great success.

14.  And whoso disobeyeth Allah and His Messenger and transgresseth His limits, He will make him enter Fire, where he will dwell for ever; his will be a shameful doom. 
13.  Tilka  Huduudul-laah.  Wa  many-  yuti-‘il-laaha  wa  Rasuulahuu  yudkhil-hu  Jannaatin-  tajrii  min-  tahti-  hal-  ‘anhaaru  khaalidiina  fii-haa.  Wa  zaalikal-fawzul- ‘aziim.

14.  Wa  many-ya’-sillaaha  wa Rasuulahuu  wa  yata-‘adda  huduudahuu  yud-khilhu  Naaran  khaalidiina  fiihaa;  wa  lahuu  ‘azaabum-muhiin.



Lesson

Huduudul-laah(The bounds of Allah), Huduud is plural of Hadd which means limit, bound. Hadd is the place, where any thing ends. That is to say; the last edge and that line, which is not permitted to be crossed. Huduudul-laah aims, those fixed principles, rules and restrictions, getting on them is not allowed. For instance; restrictions about eating and drinking, fixed portions of inherited wealth etc.

yata-‘adda  - (transgressing, passing beyond, violating, breaking), ta-‘addii, ‘adwaan are also from this word’s origin, which means “crossing the prescribed bounds and disobeying the orders of Allah Almighty by breaking the restrictions.

Allah Almighty guided in detail about the number of matrimony and orphans. Then cleared the commands of heritage, its fixed portions and the legacy.

After all, it is being ordained, “an eternal blessing of the Paradise and successful life in the world is for those persons who obey Allah Almighty and His Messenger (grace, glory, blessing and peace be upon him). Those people who will not admit the prescribed laws and will overstep the bounds, they will proceed to Hell and face a shameful doom.      

It is known from this verse that oppressing in the distribution of inheritance is the cause of torment by Allah Almighty. Those Muslims should take it warning, who refuse to give the portion of heritage to the girls and other heirs. It is Saying of the Messenger of Allah Almighty (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon him), “The person, who forfeits the heir’s right from inheritance, Allah Almighty will forfeit him from his share in Paradise on the Day of Resurrection.” (Ibn Maajah, Kitaabul Wasaayaa, Baabul Hayf fil Wasi-yyah 3.4/3, Al-Hadith: 2703)  

In these verses, there is a promise of Paradise from Allah Almighty on obedience of His last Messenger (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon him) and a threat of Hell on His disobedience.  


Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English  by Muhammad Sharif).

Saturday, 30 August 2014

Lent Money And Legacy

LESSON # 481 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
Lent Money And Legacy
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verses –12b of 176, Section –2/24 (Part – 4)

And if they be more than two, then they shall be sharers in the third, after any legacy that may have been bequeathed or debt (contracted) not injuring (the heirs by willing away more than a third of the heritage) hath been paid. A commandment from Allah. And Allah is Knower, Indulgent.
Fa-‘in  kaanuuu  ‘ak-sara  min  zaalika  fahum  shura-kaaa-‘u  fissulusi  mim- ba’-di  Wasiyyatiny-yuu-saa  bihaaa ‘aw  daynin,  gayra  muzaaarr.  Wa-siyyatam-minal-laah,  wAllaahu  ‘Aliimun  Ha-liim.


Lesson

If step-brothers and sisters from the mother side (‘akhyaafii) are more than one, then they all will be paid one-third from the wealth of inheritance. However, debt will be returned and the bequeathed legacy will be made up first, provided that the other persons are not harmed due to the bequest. There are two forms of loss:

·       The legacy is for more than one-third of the heritage.

·       The will has been bequeathed also for that heir, who will be given share from the inheritance.

These both forms are not in order. If the entire heirs accept them then in this form, these are correct.

It has been ordered repeatedly about the debt and the legacy besides heritage, because there was a suspicion that the heirs would not divide the wealth before paying the debt and fulfilling the bequest of the deceased person.

Five kinds of heritages have been described with effect from the beginning of this section (Rukuuu’) – Son and daughter, mother and father, ‘akhyaafii (step-brother and sister by the same mother). These five kinsfolk are partners in the heritage. After explaining their shares in the inheritance, it has been commanded emphatically “It is order of Allah Almighty. Carrying out this order is unavoidable and He knows about the person, who obeyed, who disobeyed, who played fair in the payment of debt and acted upon the legacy and distribution of the inheritance.”

Another kind of heirs exists too besides these sharers which is called “’Asbah” (Kinsmen). Their share from the inheritance has not been fixed from any relation. But they will be given that part from the heritage which has remained after handing the portions over to the real heirs. That is to say, if any deceased person does not have any heir but the relatives (’Asbah), then the kinsmen will take that person’s entire wealth and property as next for heirs. If the both kinds are present, then remaining from the heirs, will be given to (’Asbah) and if nothing has remained, then they will get nothing.

Actually ’Asbah is that male who does not have relationship with the deceased person from the woman side. As per priority, it has following four grades:

1.   Son and the grandson

2.  Father and grandfather

3.  Brother and nephew

4.  Uncle (brother of father), his son (cousin) or his grandson

If there are many persons, then whoever is close to the deceased person, he will be antecedent, like son than grandson, brother than nephew and a full (son, father, brother or uncle) than the step (son, father or brother etc). Besides these four, woman is also ’Asbah along with the man in the children and brothers.



Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English  by Muhammad Sharif). 

Heirs Of Wife And Husband

LESSON # 480 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
Heirs Of Wife And Husband
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verses –12a of 176, Section –2/24 (Part – 4)

And unto you belongeth a half of that which your wives leave, if they have no child; but if they have a child then unto you the fourth of that which they leave, after any legacy they may have bequeathed, or debt (they may have contracted, hath been paid). And unto them belongeth the fourth of that which ye leave if ye have no child, but if ye have a child then the eighth of that which ye leave, after any legacy ye may have bequeathed, or debt (ye may have contracted, hath been paid). And if a man or a woman have a distant heir (having left neither parent nor child), and he (or she) have a brother or a sister (only on the mother’s side) then to each of them twain (the brother and the sister) the sixth.
Wa  lakum  nisfu  maa  taraka  ‘azwaa-jukum  ‘illam-  yakulla-hunna  walad.  Fa-‘in-  kaana  lahunna  waladun-  falakumur-rubu-‘u  mimmaa  tarakna  mim-  ba’-di  Wa-siyyatiny-yuusiina  bihaaa  ‘aw  dayn.  Wa  lahun-nar-rubu-‘u  mimmaa  taraktum  ‘illam-yakul-lakum  walad.  Fa-‘in- kaana  lakum  waladun-falahunnas-sumunu  mimmaa  taraktum-mim- ba’-di  Wa-siy-yatin  tuu-suuna  bihaaa  ‘aw  dayn.  Wa  ‘in-  kaana  rajuluny-yuu-rasu  kalaalatan  ‘a-wimra- ‘atunw-wa  lahuuu  ‘akhun  ‘aw  ‘ukhtun-  fali-kulli  waahidim-min-humas-sudus.



Lesson

Hereditary of Husband and wife have been described in this verse. That is to say, the husband will take half from the wealth of his wife on the condition that the woman has no child. But if the woman has some children, either from her present husband or any previous, then her husband will be given fourth of that which she leaves. However, before distribution of the hereditary, any legacy she may have bequeathed, or debt, which she may have contracted, shall be paid first.

Like this, the wife will get fourth of that which her husband leaves, provided that the husband has no child, whether from this wife or any other woman. Otherwise, she will get eighth of that which he will leave after payment of any legacy he may has bequeathed, or debt he may has contracted.

Every kind of property and wealth will be included in the inheritance, whether that is cash or articles, moveable or unmovable, ornaments or bars of precious metals and houses or gardens. But the money or its value incumbent on her husband, will be counted in the debt.

These Rules of Allah Almighty about the hereditary are quite full with wisdom and advisability. Our success is hidden in accepting them and acting upon them.  

Kalaalah (the person, who does not have his father or son), all theologians of Islam admit this explanation, but Imam Abu Hanifah says that the grandmother and granddaughter should also be not in addition to the father and the son (that person should not have father, son, grandmother and granddaughter). In this connection, which order is for the father and the son that is for the grandmother and the granddaughter too. However, difference of opinion in this respect, is from the very first between the theologians. 

Now there is description about hereditary of such brothers and sisters, who become heirs only from the mother-side. It is the Rule that while father and son are present, then brother and sister will get nothing. If the father and the son are not living, then brother and sister will get portion of hereditary. There are three types of brothers and sisters:

1.    Own – those brothers and sisters, who have same father and mother. They are called ‘ainii.
2.    Step-brothers and sisters, who are brothers and sisters due to father only, are called ‘alaatii.

3.    Brothers or sisters by the same mother but by a different father are called ‘akhyaafii

Recitation in this verse is about the last type of brothers and sisters.

If the deceased person does not have any close from the father, the mother, the son or the daughter, but he/she have one ‘akhyaafii brother or ‘akhyaafii sister, then each of both will get sixth of that which they leave. Share from hereditary for akhyaafii brother and ‘akhyaafii sister is equal, nobody will be given more or less.    

As far as it concerns about other two types of brothers and sisters, that is to say; ‘ainii and ’alaatii, order for these both types is just like own children on condition that the deceased person does not have father or son. ‘ainii brother or sister gets first priority. If they are not alive then ’alaatii brothers and sisters will get their turn. 
                                     

Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English  by Muhammad Sharif). 

Thursday, 28 August 2014

Proportion of Shares From Inheritance

LESSON # 479 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
Proportion of Shares From Inheritance
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verses –11 of 176, Section –2/24 (Part – 4)

Allah commands you concerning (the provision for) your children: to the male the equivalent of the portion of two females, and if there be only women more than two, then theirs is two-thirds of the inheritance, and if there be one (only) then for her is the half. And to each of the parents a sixth of the inheritance, if he have a son; and if he have no son and his parents are his heirs, then to his mother appertaineth the third; but if he have brethren, then to his mother appertaineth the sixth, after any legacy he may have bequeathed, or debt (hath been paid). Your parents and your children: Ye know not which of them is nearer unto you in usefulness. It is an injunction from Allah. Lo! Allah is Knower, Wise.  
Yuusii-kumullaahu  fiii  ‘aw-laadikum  lizzakari  mislu  haz-zil-‘unsa-yayn.  Fa-‘in- kunna  nisaaa-‘an  fawqas-natayni  fala-hunna  sulusaa  maa  tarak.  Wa  ‘in-kaanat  waahidatan-  fala-han-nisf.  Wa  li-‘aba-wayhi  likulli  waahidim-min-humas-sudusu  mimmaa  taraka  ‘in-kaana  lahuu  walad.  Fa-‘illam  yakullahuu  waladunw-wa  wa-risahuuu  ‘abawaahu  fali- ‘um-mihis-sulus.  Fa-‘in-  kaana  lahuuu  ‘ikh-watun-  fali- ‘ummi-his-sudusu  mim-  ba’-di  wa-siy-yatiny-yuusii  bihaaa  ‘aw  dayn.  ‘Aabaaa-‘ukum,  wa  ‘abnaaa- ‘ukum  laa  tadruna  ‘ayyuhum  ‘aqrabu  lakum  naf-‘aa.  Farii-zatam-minallah.  ‘Innallaaha  kaana  ‘Aliiman  Hakiimaa.  



Lesson

Yuusii-kum(commands you), this word has been derived from wasi-yat, which means a last will, legacy, command and testament left by any deceased person. However, in this verse Allah Almighty is commanding directly about the proportion of the shares for the men, women and the parents.

Division of inheritance is most important maxim of our social life. Even success of the society is connected with its accurate distribution. Common principle about the division of the heritage has been determined here that each male will get double while each female will be given single portion, whether the male and the female are one and one, or any of them is more in number.   

haz-zil-‘unsa-yayn – (equal to two women), according to certain Divine Laws, the female has no portion from the inheritance. During the period of ignorance also, the heritage was used to divide only in the marriageable men. Against this violence, the voice arose in the present time that the portion from inheritance should be divided equal between the male and the female. Islamic Law is among the both in this matter, which has determined the portion double for the male (men) from the female (women).

Its first reason is that the woman is responsible only to train the children. She is neither responsible, nor would think about the livelihood. The male has been held responsible to provide the expenses for his wife, children and other members of his family. Therefore, it is exactly reasonable and according to just, that he should be given more portions from the heritage.

Another reason may be too that the married woman usually gets dowry from her parents (the portion from her father’s earnings) in addition to her husband’s inheritance, but the man receives his share only from one side.

If there are just two girls then their total portion will be two-third and each of them will get one-third. Then whether the girls are how more than the two, their collective portion from the heritage will remain the same i.e. two-third. Remaining one-third share will be given to other kinsfolk and relatives.

If there is only one girl then she will get half portion of total heritage and remaining half portion will be distributed to other relatives. But if the relatives etc are not present then that remaining half will also be given to the girl.

If there is no daughter but only the son (whether one or more than one), then they will be the heirs of the whole legacy.

Three forms of inheritance for the father and mother have also been  described in this verse:

1.  If the deceased person had children then each of his parents will get sixth portion from the inheritance.

2.  If the dead person had no children, and only parents are the heirs, then the mother will get one-third while the father two-third.


3.  If the late person had brothers and sisters more than one, whether they are real or only from the father-side or only from the mother-side, and had no child then the mother will get sixth portion and the remaining wealth will be given to the father. Brother and sister will get nothing. Moreover, if he had only one brother or one sister then mother will get one-third and the two-third will be given to the father.  

It is compulsory that the heirs will be given their portion from the heritage after the payment of late person’s debts and will. Wealth of the deceased person should be used on his shroud and burial first, then his/her debts be paid from it, then out of the remaining portion of the property, up to one third would be used as per the Will of the deceased person. Now, what is remaining, that should be distributed between the heirs.

After that, Allah Almighty commanded that you do not know about the person, which of them is nearer unto you in usefulness. It is an injunction from Allah Almighty, you should not interfere in the fixed portions but the portion that Allah Almighty has fixed, you should abide by them. 



Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English  by Muhammad Sharif). 

Wednesday, 27 August 2014

They Swallow Fire, Who Devour Wealth Of Orphans

LESSON # 478 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
They Swallow Fire, Who Devour Wealth Of Orphans
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verses – 9 & 10 of 176, Section –1/24 (Part – 4)

9.  And let those fear (in their behaviour toward orphans) who if they left behind them weak offspring would be afraid for them. So let them mind their duty to Allah, and speak justly.

10.  Lo! Those who devour the wealth of orphans wrongfully, they do but swallow fire into their bellies. And they will be exposed to burning flame.
9.  Wal-yakh-shallaziina  law  tarakuu  min  khalfihim  zurriy-yatan- zi-‘aafan  khaafuu  ‘alay-him  fal-yattaqullaaha  wal-yaquuluu  qawlan- sadiidaa.

10.  ‘Innallaziina  ya’-kuluuna  ‘amwaalal-yataamaa  zulman  ‘innamaa  ya’-kuluuna  fii  butuu-nihim  Naaraa.  Wa  sa-yas-lawna  sa-‘iiraa.



Lesson

Apparently, it seems that this order is for the guardians and the protectors of the orphans but if we observe it minutely then we will find that it is also applicable upon the other people.

As each person out of us fears that anywhere the matter would not be dealt with badness and severely with our children after our death, likewise we should abstain from extortion with the orphan children of others. As you wish that after your death, the people must treat your children with kindness and grace, just like this, you should behave the orphans in a good manner, with mercy and kindness. If you will do so, then you will remain satisfied about your own offspring, and verily, other people will treat your children with softness and elegance like your behavior with others’ orphans.

You should fear from Allah Almighty, talk with the orphans in a pleasant mood and straight forward, so that, they may get encourage, they may be capable of being set to right or cured and may escape from any disaster.

It has been told in the previous verses several times that care is intransitive in connection with spending the wealth of the orphans, because embezzling in their property is a very big sin. Now the punishment regarding embezzlement in the wealth of orphans has been caused to hear that the persons, who devour the wealth of orphans wrongfully, they do but swallow fire into their bellies. That is to say, the end of devouring the property of orphans will be exposing them (who devour) to the burning flame very soon.

There is no utmost limit of friendlessness and helplessness of the orphan. He/she is indigent and seeks support of others. If he/she does not find any trustworthy and kind protector then for him/her, it is not far to be ruined and dissolute. Therefore, Allah Almighty ordered, “Deal honestly and treat kindly with the orphans. The person, who will devour the wealth of this helpless creature wrongfully, will be punished very severely.”  


Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English  by Muhammad Sharif). 

Tuesday, 26 August 2014

Softness During Heritage Distribution

LESSON # 477 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
Softness During Heritage Distribution
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verse – 8 of 176, Section –1/24 (Part – 4)

And when kinsfolk  and orphans and the needy are present at the division (of the heritage), bestow on them therefrom and speak kindly unto them.
Wa  ‘izaa  hazaral-qismata  ‘ulul-qurbaa   wal-yataamaa  wal-masaakiinu  far-zuquuhum-min-hu  wa  quuluu  lahum  qawlam-ma’-ruufaa.



Lesson

ulul-qurbaa(kinsfolk), close relatives are called ‘ulul-qurbaa and kinsmen.

far-zuquuhum – {bestow on them (something)}, it has been originated from the word rizq, which means a grant.

qawlam-ma’-ruufaa(kindly speaking, fair talk), well known and pleasing talk is called qawlam-ma’-ruufaa, that is to say; such correct saying, which has gotten a credential of a public assent.

If other people of the same kin are present at the time of division of the inheritance, either those persons out of them who do not merit the share from the heritage or the orphans and the needy, they should be returned after causing to drink and feed something. Even if anything is bestowed on them from the heritage, then it is also a good behavior. However, if there is no opportunity of causing to feed or give such people something from the property of inheritance, for instance, the orphans are owners of such property and the deceased person has not bequeathed to give those people something, then they should be seen off speaking them kindly. That is to say, it should be told them very softly that this property belongs to the orphans only and the deceased person has not even left by will for them. Therefore, we are helpless and sorry.

In the beginning of this Chapter (Surah), it was commanded, “Treat the entire kindred and close relatives very kindly, and show partiality with the orphans and the poor.” Therefore, something should be given to those people, and if they have no right of any share due to any reason, then at least they should be behaved in a well manner.

Islam has caused to draw attention repeatedly towards uniting the hearts in friendship. There is description about kinsfolk and close relatives along with the orphans and the poor in these verses. However, at other places, it has been emphasized about the rights of the guests, the neighbors and the strangers also.

When any person is unable to give something or his circumstances have compelled him to stop his hand, then in this form, it has been commanded to adopt the reasonableness in conversation and softness in his talking.  


Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English  by Muhammad Sharif). 

Monday, 25 August 2014

Men And Women Are Sharers In The Bequest

LESSON # 476 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
Men And Women Are Sharers In The Bequest
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verse – 7 of 176, Section –1/24 (Part – 4)

Unto the men (of a family) belongeth a share of that which parents and near kindred leave, and unto the women a share of that which parents and near kindred leave, whether it be little or much. A legal share.
Lir-rijaali  nasiibum-mimmaa  tarakal-waalidaani  wal-‘aqrabuuna,  wa  linnisaaa-‘i  nasiibum-mimmaa  tarakal-waalidaani  wal-‘aqrabuuna  mimmaa  qalla  minhu  ‘aw  ka-sur.  Nasiibam-mafruuzaa.  



Lesson

The rights and concessions about orphan children were mentioned in the previous verses. Even that Allah Almighty cleared most petty affairs, which belonged to it, viz. The Mahr (the money or its value incumbent on the husband) of orphan girls should be given without fail, their training and bringing them up should be supervised properly. They should be looked after constantly until they reach the marriageable age. Their property should not be misappropriated. Their wealth should not be finished quickly due to the fear of their adolescence. And when the time of returning the property comes because of their becoming matured, it should be done formal in front of the witnesses.

Before the apostleship of the Messenger of Allah Almighty, Muhammad (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon him), it was a tradition that the daughters could not get the share from the inheritance, either they might be little or older, including the sons who might not reach the marriageable age too. Only the elder sons, who were able to fight against their enemies, were considered heirs. It was the main cause that the orphan children were not given any part of share from the inheritance. This verse was revealed about those people. It has been ordered that the sons either they are adult or little, they will get the share from the hereditary property of parents and near kindred as well as the daughters whether they are adult or little, will also get their share. This verse has finished the traditions of the period of ignorance and safeguarded the rights of orphan children, violation of their rights has been stopped. Detail about fixation of the share of right from the property of a deceased person will be discussed in the next section.

The Heritage Law of Islam is incomparable and has an Exemplary position in the world. Only the sons are considered sharer of the wealth of any deceased person in the maximum countries of the world. No share is given to the daughters. At some places, only elder and adult sons out of the children are imagined rightful heirs and successors.

Islam produced a perfect pattern of justice and equity, fixed the lawful and rightful shares of daughters also like the sons and of the women like other heir men too. The non-Muslims are being necessitated also to accept this Law of Islam in this reign of justice and equation.        



Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English  by Muhammad Sharif). 

Sunday, 24 August 2014

Looking After The Property Of Orphans

LESSON # 475 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
Looking After The Property Of Orphans
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verse – 6 of 176, Section –1/24 (Part – 4)

And test orphans till they reach the marriageable age; then, if ye find them of sound judgment, deliver over unto them their fortune; and devour it not by squandering and in haste lest they should grow up. And whoso (of the guardians) is rich, let him abstain generously (from taking of the property of orphans); and whoso is poor let him take thereof in reason (for his guardianship). Then when ye deliver up their property unto orphans, have (the transaction) witnessed in their presence. Allah sufficeth as a Reckoner.
Wab-talul-yataamaa  hattaaa  ‘izaa  balagun-nikaah.  Fa-‘in  ‘aanastum-minhum  rushdan-fadfa-‘uuu  ‘ilay-him  ‘amwaala-hum.  Wa  laa  ta’-kuluuhaaa  ‘israafanw-wa  bidaaran  ‘any-yakbaruu.  Wa  man-  kaana  ga-niyyan-  fal-yasta’-fif.  Wa  man-kaana  faqiiran-  fal-ya’kul  bil-ma’-ruuf.  Fa-‘izaa  dafa’-tum  ‘ilay-him  ‘amwaalahum  fa-‘ash-hiduu  ‘alayhim.  Wa  kafaa  billaahi  Hasiibaa.



Lesson

It has been ordered in this verse, “Carry on nourishing and educating the orphans, and testing their sense and comprehension at times till they reach the marriageable age; then, if you find them of sound judgment, then deliver over their property and wealth to them. However if you find that they do not have the required intellect even after reaching the marriageable age, then according to the sect of  Imam Abu Hanifah, you would have to wait till the age of twenty five years. During this tenure, whenever he/she seems a wise person, then deliver over the wealth and property to them. Otherwise, hand them over their wealth and property after reaching the age of twenty-five years in each condition.

Spending the wealth of orphans more than necessity is prohibited. Do not finish their property in haste due to the intimidation that after reaching the marriageable age, the orphan will get back his/her property. The guardian should not spend the wealth of orphan for his personal use. However, if the guardian is poor then he can take some property propitious to his services in the reason for his guardianship.

Whenever, father of any child expires then it is important to hand over the wealth of orphan with its written detail to a guardian before some Muslims. And when the orphan reaches the marriageable age, then according to that written detail his/her wealth should be gotten returned and how much has been spent out of it, its detail should be explained to the orphan.

Moreover, refund of the property/wealth should be in the presence of the witnesses so that if any dispute arises in future, then the witnesses may help in its settlement. Allah Almighty is Protector and Reckoner of every thing, He does not need any witness or account Himself. It has been determined for the ease of the people only.


Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English  by Muhammad Sharif). 

Saturday, 23 August 2014

Pay The Incumbent Money To Married Women As A Right

LESSON # 474 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
Pay The Incumbent Money To Married Women As A Right
Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verse – 4 of 176, Section –1/24 (Part – 4)

4.  And give unto the women (whom ye marry) free gift of their marriage portions. But if they of their own accord remit unto you a part thereof, then ye are welcome to absorb it (in your wealth).

5.  And give not unto the foolish (what is in) your (keeping of their) wealth, which Allah hath given you to maintain; and feed and clothe them from it, and speak kindly unto them.
4.  Wa  ‘aatun-nisaaa-‘a  sadu-qaati-hinna  nihlah.  Fa-‘in-  tib-na  lakum  ‘an- shay-‘im-minhu  nafsan-fakuluuhu  haniii-‘am-mariii-‘aa.

5.  Wa  laa  tu’-tussufahaaa-‘a  ‘amwaala-kumullatii  ja-‘alal-laahu  lakum  qiyaaamanw-war-zuquuhum  fiihaa  waksuuhum  wa  quuluu  lahum  qawlam-ma’-ruufaa.



Lesson

sadu-qaati-hinna{free gift of women’s marriage portions (who are married recently)}, sadu-qaat is plural of sadaqah which is also used in the meanings of charity, zakaat (alms-giving). Here it has been used for the money or its value incumbent on the husband as a right of the women (whom you marry).

Matrimony and other orders regarding wives have been described in these verses. Allah Almighty commands, Give unto the women (whom you marry) free gift of their marriage portions happily at your own, whether anybody urges you to pay or not. As though, if you do so then there is no objection to marry the orphan girls. Objection is in that case if there is a risk of shortness in paying the money or its value incumbent on the husband or their any right.

If the woman of her own accord remits her husband a part thereof with her own pleasure or returns it whole to him after receiving, then there is no harm, the husband can take it happily and absorb it in his wealth. The wife can remit the entire money incumbent to her husband too.

haniii-‘am-mariii-‘aa – (with pleasure and love), the meal, which seems delicious and a person accepts it with pleasure, that is called haniii-‘an and mariii-‘an is that meal which becomes part of the body and means of health and personal strength after digestion.

It has been directed about the little children; particularly the orphans come first out of them that until they are unintelligent, their wealth should not be handed over to them, which Allah Almighty has provided for the humankind’s arrangements of livelihood. But you should preserve their wealth entirely and save it from misappropriation until those children do not become able to understand the difference between profit and loss, good and bad. However, feed and clothe them from it, and satisfy them by speaking kindly that entire wealth is for them, we are protecting it only as their well-wishers. When you will become sensible, this wealth will be handed over to you.

We should considerate, meditate and obey these orders, which Allah Almighty has given to us about the orphans and women. We should pray for Divine guidance to act upon them. Not only the feeding and the clothing but also speaking kindly and fair talk is included in the goodness.   


Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English  by Muhammad Sharif). 

Friday, 22 August 2014

More Matrimony Are Allowed, If You Can Do Justice

LESSON # 473 FROM HOLY QUR’AN
More Matrimony Are Allowed, If You Can Do Justice

Surah NISAAA’  (WOMEN) - Chapter - 4)
Verse – 3 of 176, Section –1/24 (Part – 4)

And if ye fear that ye will not deal fairly by the orphans, marry of the women, who seem good to you, two or three or four; but if ye fear that ye cannot do justice (to so many) then one (only) or (the captives) that your right hands possess. Thus it is more likely that ye will not do injustice. 
Wa  ‘in  khiftum  ‘allaa  tuq-situu  fil-yataamaa  fan-kihuu  maa  taaba  lakum-minan-nisaaa-‘i  masnaa  wa  sulaasa  wa  rubaa’.  Fa-‘in  khiftum  ‘allaa  ta’-diluu  fawaa-hidatan  ‘aw  maa  malakat  ‘aymaanukum.  Zaalika  ‘adnaaa  ‘allaa  ta-‘uu-luu.



Lesson

‘aymaanun  - (right hands), it is plural of yamiin which means ‘the right hand’. Whenever any person catches any thing, he catches it usually with his right hand. Therefore, to disclose complete grip of the hand (possession) upon anything, it is said in Arabic idioms, “His right hand is Master of that thing.” That is to say, “he has complete and strong hold on it, for example slave and maid etc.

In this part of the verse, special attention has been drawn towards the orphans because there is none ordinarily to care for them. They can be victim of tyranny by any cruel person easily. If you marry the orphan girls, that should not be for the purpose of desire, greed and to take possession of wealth, but that should be only for their interest and benefit. And if it is difficult to escape from these uncomely affairs, then let the orphan girls remain in their own circumstances and marry some other woman. And if you wish, you can marry who seem good to you, two or three or four. In this case, you have to be more careful to do justice between them. If you cannot do justice to so many wives then marry one only or the maid (captive) that your right hands possess, sustain upon her only. That is nearer to justice.

It is important to understand particularly two or three matters in connection with this verse:

1.  Firstly, if you fear that you will not deal fairly by the orphan girls then do not marry them. However, you can marry even four other women.

2.  Secondly, fundamental condition for marrying more than one is that you would have to establish justice between the wives (which is a very much difficult matter to do so as it has been described at another place also in this chapter).

3.  Thirdly, if you have fear that you would not be able to do justice and equality between the wives then you should be satisfied with the captive woman only.  

It means that the matrimony more than one is not open and common but that is bound with the condition of justice.



Transliterated Holy Qur’an in Roman Script & Translated from Arabic to English by Marmaduke Pickthall, Published by Paak Company, 17-Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Lesson collected from Dars e Qur’an published By Idara Islah wa Tableegh, Lahore (translated Urdu to English  by Muhammad Sharif).

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