Summary of the Chapter “Tawbah”
Lesson # 1034 from Noble Quran
Surah ‘TAWBAH or BARAAA-‘AH (REPENTANCE) – Chapter – 9)
Stage – 2, Verse – 0 of 129, Section – 0 of 16 (Part - 10)
In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful
BisMIllaahir-Rahmaanir-Rahiim is not written before this Surah. Wrathful commandments have been mentioned in it concerning the disbelievers. According to setting, it is ninth Chapter of Holy Qur’an, whereas its number of Revelation is one hundred thirteenth. It was revealed in Madinah during ninth Hijrah. Before its revelation, Treaty of Hudaibiyah was made during sixth AH.
Reason of its revelation was that, when treaty was made with Qureish, then the tribe of Banu Khuzaa-‘ah made an agreement with the Muslims, and the tribe of Banu Bakr became ally of Qureish. After two years, Banu Bakr attacked on Banu Khuzaa-‘ah and they did not care that a treaty between their allies (Qureish) and Muslims had been made at hudaibiyah, and one of the terms of treaty was: Neither Qureish and Muslims will attack over each other and nor they will help the assailants.
The Qureish of Makkah helped the tribe of Banu Bakr with weapons etc. and it was obvious disobedience of the treaty of Hudaibiyah. Then it became necessary for the Muslims to help the tribe of Banu Khuzaa-‘ah in accordance with the agreement. Therefore, the Messenger of God Almighty (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon Him) attacked on Makkah during eighth AH and conquered it very easily.
At the time of conquest of Makkah, the Muslims had different relationships with different tribes of Arab. Some of them were those; with whom the agreement was for a fixed duration. Some were those who made treaty without fixation of time. Many were such tribes, with which; there was no treaty or agreement. It was meant that by seizing Makkah, the entire Arabian Peninsula had been captured.
It was decided in the Knowledge of God Almighty that the entire Arabian Peninsula would be a strong Fort of Islam, where no other person would be able to interfere except Muslims, and by spreading the brotherhood of Makkah, it shall make the Arab one unity. Following incidents took place constantly to meet this goal.
Peace treaty was held during sixth AH. In eighth AH, the people of Qureish broke it by opposing the same term, and during the same year, the Muslims attacked on Makkah suddenly and conquered it. During ninth AH, the subject Surah was revealed, in which it was decided that the Muslims would be sovereigns directly of the Peninsula of Arab without partnership of any other.
When this Chapter was revealed, a Caravan of Muslims had moved to Makkah for performing Pilgrimage under supervision and leadership of Abu Bakr Siddique (May God be pleased with Him). As soon as this Surah was revealed, an ambassador, that is to say; Ali (May God be pleased with Him) was sent unto Abu Bakr Siddique (May God be pleased with Him) and was instructed that at the time of Hajj, He (May God be pleased with Him) should proclaim in the field of Arafaat or Minaa: All those treaties and agreements have been broken, which were made with idolaters and disbelievers. The person, who does not want to accept Islam, should arrange for himself, otherwise will be put to death. This announcement was read and caused to hear by Ali (May God be pleased with Him).
Different verses of this Chapter have been revealed for different tribes and about different events. Abridged summary of it has been appended below:
· In the beginning, the idolaters were warned: There is no further treaty or agreement among you and us. You are given respite for four months. Either you should join Islamic brotherhood by accepting Islam; or get out of the Peninsula of Arab. Infamy of the world and the Day of Resurrection have been written for you. With this proclamation, idol-worshiping was ended from the Arab for ever.
· The Christian emperor of Rome was going to be prepared to press the increasing power of the Muslims. There are news about them and instructions about those wars which will be fought against them in future.
· The Muslims are being guided to be separate from the hypocrites and remain vigilant from them.